CakePHPのルーティング(routes.php)のルート設定についてのメモ

CakePHPのルーティング(routes.php)のルート設定についてのメモ

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みなさんこんにちは、jonioです。

現在CakePHPを習得中ですがルーティングについてよく分かってないので自分なりのメモを残します。

まだまだ分からない部分が多いのでURL(ルート)設定の部分についてのメモになります。

CakePHPのバージョン

4.1です。

routes.phpはどこにあるか

「CakePHPのプロジェクト > config > routes.php」にルーティングはあります。

デフォルトは下記になっていますが47行目〜74行目がルーティングの為の記述です。

<?php
/**
 * Routes configuration.
 *
 * In this file, you set up routes to your controllers and their actions.
 * Routes are very important mechanism that allows you to freely connect
 * different URLs to chosen controllers and their actions (functions).
 *
 * It's loaded within the context of `Application::routes()` method which
 * receives a `RouteBuilder` instance `$routes` as method argument.
 *
 * CakePHP(tm) : Rapid Development Framework (https://cakephp.org)
 * Copyright (c) Cake Software Foundation, Inc. (https://cakefoundation.org)
 *
 * Licensed under The MIT License
 * For full copyright and license information, please see the LICENSE.txt
 * Redistributions of files must retain the above copyright notice.
 *
 * @copyright     Copyright (c) Cake Software Foundation, Inc. (https://cakefoundation.org)
 * @link          https://cakephp.org CakePHP(tm) Project
 * @license       https://opensource.org/licenses/mit-license.php MIT License
 */

use Cake\Routing\Route\DashedRoute;
use Cake\Routing\RouteBuilder;

/*
 * The default class to use for all routes
 *
 * The following route classes are supplied with CakePHP and are appropriate
 * to set as the default:
 *
 * - Route
 * - InflectedRoute
 * - DashedRoute
 *
 * If no call is made to `Router::defaultRouteClass()`, the class used is
 * `Route` (`Cake\Routing\Route\Route`)
 *
 * Note that `Route` does not do any inflections on URLs which will result in
 * inconsistently cased URLs when used with `:plugin`, `:controller` and
 * `:action` markers.
 */
/** @var \Cake\Routing\RouteBuilder $routes */
$routes->setRouteClass(DashedRoute::class);

$routes->scope('/', function (RouteBuilder $builder) {
    /*
     * Here, we are connecting '/' (base path) to a controller called 'Pages',
     * its action called 'display', and we pass a param to select the view file
     * to use (in this case, templates/Pages/home.php)...
     */
    $builder->connect('/', ['controller' => 'Pages', 'action' => 'display', 'home']);

    /*
     * ...and connect the rest of 'Pages' controller's URLs.
     */
    $builder->connect('/pages/*', ['controller' => 'Pages', 'action' => 'display']);

    /*
     * Connect catchall routes for all controllers.
     *
     * The `fallbacks` method is a shortcut for
     *
     * ```
     * $builder->connect('/:controller', ['action' => 'index']);
     * $builder->connect('/:controller/:action/*', []);
     * ```
     *
     * You can remove these routes once you've connected the
     * routes you want in your application.
     */
    $builder->fallbacks();
});

/*
 * If you need a different set of middleware or none at all,
 * open new scope and define routes there.
 *
 * ```
 * $routes->scope('/api', function (RouteBuilder $builder) {
 *     // No $builder->applyMiddleware() here.
 *     // Connect API actions here.
 * });
 * ```
 */

$routes->scope(‘/’, function (RouteBuilder $builder) {});

47行目の「$routes->scope(‘/‘, function・・・」の「/」はルートに当たり以下の書き方で「/」以下にURLの設定をしますよという意味になります。

$routes->scope('/', function (RouteBuilder $builder) {

});

「$routes->scope(‘/’, function」がもし「$routes->scope(‘/demo’, function」になるとルートは下記になります。

この場合だと「/demo」以下にURLの設定をすることになります。

$builder->connect(‘/’, [‘controller’ => ‘Pages’, ‘action’ => ‘display’, ‘home’]);

これは「/」にアクセスした時にコントローラーは「PagesController.php」を使いアクション名は「display」でビューは「home.php」を使いますよという意味です。

通常アクションに表示するビューの記述をするのですがdisplayアクションはデフォルトでは下記になっていて表示するビューの記述がありません。

<?php
declare(strict_types=1);

/**
 * CakePHP(tm) : Rapid Development Framework (https://cakephp.org)
 * Copyright (c) Cake Software Foundation, Inc. (https://cakefoundation.org)
 *
 * Licensed under The MIT License
 * For full copyright and license information, please see the LICENSE.txt
 * Redistributions of files must retain the above copyright notice.
 *
 * @copyright Copyright (c) Cake Software Foundation, Inc. (https://cakefoundation.org)
 * @link      https://cakephp.org CakePHP(tm) Project
 * @since     0.2.9
 * @license   https://opensource.org/licenses/mit-license.php MIT License
 */
namespace App\Controller;

use Cake\Core\Configure;
use Cake\Http\Exception\ForbiddenException;
use Cake\Http\Exception\NotFoundException;
use Cake\Http\Response;
use Cake\View\Exception\MissingTemplateException;

/**
 * Static content controller
 *
 * This controller will render views from templates/Pages/
 *
 * @link https://book.cakephp.org/4/en/controllers/pages-controller.html
 */
class PagesController extends AppController
{
    /**
     * Displays a view
     *
     * @param string ...$path Path segments.
     * @return \Cake\Http\Response|null
     * @throws \Cake\Http\Exception\ForbiddenException When a directory traversal attempt.
     * @throws \Cake\View\Exception\MissingTemplateException When the view file could not
     *   be found and in debug mode.
     * @throws \Cake\Http\Exception\NotFoundException When the view file could not
     *   be found and not in debug mode.
     * @throws \Cake\View\Exception\MissingTemplateException In debug mode.
     */
    public function display(string ...$path): ?Response
    {
        if (!$path) {
            return $this->redirect('/');
        }
        if (in_array('..', $path, true) || in_array('.', $path, true)) {
            throw new ForbiddenException();
        }
        $page = $subpage = null;

        if (!empty($path[0])) {
            $page = $path[0];
        }
        if (!empty($path[1])) {
            $subpage = $path[1];
        }
        $this->set(compact('page', 'subpage'));

        try {
            return $this->render(implode('/', $path));
        } catch (MissingTemplateException $exception) {
            if (Configure::read('debug')) {
                throw $exception;
            }
            throw new NotFoundException();
        }
    }
}

こんな時に3つ目の引数に.phpを取った表示するビュー名を記述します。

サブディレクトリにURLの設定をする場合

サブディレクトリにURLの設定をするのは「/」の下にディレクトリの設定をするという意味です。

この場合は下記の記述をします。

<?php
/**
 * Routes configuration.
 *
 * In this file, you set up routes to your controllers and their actions.
 * Routes are very important mechanism that allows you to freely connect
 * different URLs to chosen controllers and their actions (functions).
 *
 * It's loaded within the context of `Application::routes()` method which
 * receives a `RouteBuilder` instance `$routes` as method argument.
 *
 * CakePHP(tm) : Rapid Development Framework (https://cakephp.org)
 * Copyright (c) Cake Software Foundation, Inc. (https://cakefoundation.org)
 *
 * Licensed under The MIT License
 * For full copyright and license information, please see the LICENSE.txt
 * Redistributions of files must retain the above copyright notice.
 *
 * @copyright     Copyright (c) Cake Software Foundation, Inc. (https://cakefoundation.org)
 * @link          https://cakephp.org CakePHP(tm) Project
 * @license       https://opensource.org/licenses/mit-license.php MIT License
 */

use Cake\Routing\Route\DashedRoute;
use Cake\Routing\RouteBuilder;
use Cake\Routing\Router;                    //この行を追加

/*
 * The default class to use for all routes
 *
 * The following route classes are supplied with CakePHP and are appropriate
 * to set as the default:
 *
 * - Route
 * - InflectedRoute
 * - DashedRoute
 *
 * If no call is made to `Router::defaultRouteClass()`, the class used is
 * `Route` (`Cake\Routing\Route\Route`)
 *
 * Note that `Route` does not do any inflections on URLs which will result in
 * inconsistently cased URLs when used with `:plugin`, `:controller` and
 * `:action` markers.
 */
/** @var \Cake\Routing\RouteBuilder $routes */
$routes->setRouteClass(DashedRoute::class);

$routes->scope('/', function (RouteBuilder $builder) {
    /*
     * Here, we are connecting '/' (base path) to a controller called 'Pages',
     * its action called 'display', and we pass a param to select the view file
     * to use (in this case, templates/Pages/home.php)...
     */
    $builder->connect('/', ['controller' => 'Pages', 'action' => 'display', 'home']);

    /*
     * ...and connect the rest of 'Pages' controller's URLs.
     */
    $builder->connect('/pages/*', ['controller' => 'Pages', 'action' => 'display']);


    //ここから追加
    $builder->prefix('admin', function($routes){
        $routes->fallbacks('DashedRoute');
    });
    //ここまで追加
    

    /*
     * Connect catchall routes for all controllers.
     *
     * The `fallbacks` method is a shortcut for
     *
     * ```
     * $builder->connect('/:controller', ['action' => 'index']);
     * $builder->connect('/:controller/:action/*', []);
     * ```
     *
     * You can remove these routes once you've connected the
     * routes you want in your application.
     */
    $builder->fallbacks();
});

/*
 * If you need a different set of middleware or none at all,
 * open new scope and define routes there.
 *
 * ```
 * $routes->scope('/api', function (RouteBuilder $builder) {
 *     // No $builder->applyMiddleware() here.
 *     // Connect API actions here.
 * });
 * ```
 */

26行目はサブディレクトリの設定をする為に必要な記述です。

63行目〜65行目でサブディレクトリの設定をしていますが63行目の「admin」がサブディレクトリに当たります。

64行目はこれがないとエラーになります。

admin以下にルートを設定する時は54行目と同じように記述することができます。(下記参照)

$builder->prefix('admin', function($routes){
  $routes->connect('/', ['controller' => 'Posts', 'action' => 'index']);     //この行を追加
  
  $routes->fallbacks('DashedRoute');
});